In this day and age, teachers and textbooks are not the only sources of knowledge. Instructional media definitely plays an important role in learning. Being equipped with the understanding on the development and utilization of instructional media means being able to effectively incorporate them in instruction, resulting to a better learning experience.
I have learned about different media resources from this course. We have studied print materials, visual materials, audio resources, internet resources, and mutimedia resources. The following are what I would be taking with me and what I hope to apply in my future lessons.
Although there are continuous advances in technology and these are being used in education, I believe print materials are here to stay. Print materials are portable, easy to produce and modify, cost effective, students are familiar to them and are comfortable in their use, and they are readily available. Apart from this, some schools still cannot afford to have the technology tools that are available at present. Therefore, teachers should have skills in producing print materials. Having to produce my own personal print material may be tedious but since it will be produced to cater the learners specific needs and my specific objectives it will be more effective. Amongst the considerations for the production of print materials, the two most important for me are: a) Consider the audience and purpose – The print material should be made to suit the needs of the user, and the purpose of the print materials should also be considered since they should be made to achieve their purpose, and b) Lay out of the page – It is the overall look of the print material. The material should catch the attention of the reader, the pages should not be too crowded, and there should be balance in the placement of texts and graphics on either side of the page. Principles such as the “Reading Z,” and “The Rule of Thirds” will be of help in creating the page layout.
Visual materials are important in the teaching – learning process because it provides a concrete referent for ideas, it can motivate learners, it can simplify information that is difficult to understand and it helps learners comprehend what they can’t comprehend in the verbal or written presentation. Not only is it important in the teaching-learning process, but visual literacy may mean life or death to a person, for example, the ability to understand visual materials such as emergency information cards and highway signs. Therefore teachers must know how to develop and use visual materials in order to promote visual literacy. The important principles I learned for visual design are: a) Ensure Legibility – All words and images in the visual aid should be seen by the viewers, b) Reduce Effort – Viewers should expend little effort to understand the visual aid, c) Increase Active Engagement – The visual aid should be appealing to the viewer, and d)Focus Attention – Audience’s attention should be directed to the most important part of the message.
The use of audio materials facilitate the development of imagination which in turn is important in problem solving and the generation of new ideas. Audio materials contribute to the development of listening and interpretation skills and it is a way of reaching out to physically challenged students. Therefore, even if there are limitations in the use of audio formats, they are not something that would be enough reasons to prevent the use of audio materials in the classroom. There are 3 audio formats that are frequently used in classrooms these days. These are audiotapes, compact discs, and MP3/Wave file formats.
No one can deny the importance of the internet. If you ask some people, especially the young ones, some may even say that the internet is part of the basic needs of a person. Because of the advantages, and even because of the disadvantages of its use, teachers should know how to use the internet themselves for them to be able to guide their learners on how to use it. The 5 basic criteria in evaluating internet websites that I have learned are: 1) Accuracy – The facts on the site should be documented and verifiable, there should be more than one source used for background information, copyright laws should be respected, the website and the links should be up-to-date, there should not be any grammatical or spelling errors in the text, and the site should not be biased, 2) Authority – The author, publisher or sponsor should be clearly identified, well known in the field or recommended by someone who is well-known in the field, and easily accessible with a given e-mail or other means to get in touch with, 3) Usefulness – The site must address the topic, the information on the topic should be comprehensive, and the site should contain links to other sources that address the topic, 4) Currentness – The information on the website should be current, and 5) Presentation – The information on the site should be easy to access, the organization of the site should make sense, and the sections should be properly labeled.
Multimedia resources is referred to as the next generation of learning materials. It provides a way to understand difficult concepts more clearly as it incorporates dynamic animations, interactivity and visual design that stimulates, challenges and tests students. Multimedia learning tools can be designed to transform learning into an active process where students can visualize relationships, interact with dynamic content, and immediately test their knowledge. Thus they are important tools to foster learning. I have learned that the following are steps in the development of multimedia resources: a) Determine the learning goals and outcomes of the materials, b) Understand the learners – understand their needs and how the materials will help them, c) Design the materials – It should be designed according to the user’s point of view, d) Develop the material – They should be developed using multimedia components and interactivity with the user should be incorporated, e) Test the material – Materials should be tested prior to actual use, and f) Improve the material – Improvement should be done if there is a need after testing.
There is a need for systematic planning for the media resources to be integrated in instruction. In this course, I have learned about the TPACK Framework, Technology Integration Matrix (TIM) and ASSURE Model which are guides to the planning of technology integration in instruction.
TPACK stands for Technological Pedagogigal Content Knowledge. It shows that technology, pedagogy and content should not be treated as separate bodies of knowledge, instead it emphasizes the need to understand their relationship with each other in order to develop good teaching. Using the TPACK framework as a guide in good teaching with technology, a teacher would know that there is a need to understand which technology would support the representation of concepts, which technology would support the pedagogical technique, which technology will support theories of epistemology, and teacher would know how technology can help students build on prior knowledge.
Technology Integration Matrix (TIM)
The TIM help teachers better integrate technology in teaching and learning by associating the five levels of technology integration (entry, adoption, adaptation, infusion, and transformation) with five characteristics of meaningful learning environment, which are active, collaborative, constructive, authentic and goal directed. The matrix shows the role of the teacher and student, describes the environment and provides videos for every level of technology integration and characteristic of learning environment. Through the association of levels of technology integration with the characteristics of meaningful learning environment, TIM has created a basis for defining and evaluating technology integration and it has provided a reference for effective teaching with technology.
The ASSURE Model is a procedural model, it is intended to assure effective instruction. ASSURE stands for Analyze learners, State objectives, Select methods, media, and materials, Utilize media and materials, Require learner participation, and Evaluate and revise. We have used the assure model for planning the field testing we have conducted. Analysis of the learners required knowing the age group the background and the needs of the learners. State objectives required the statement of specific, measurable, and reasonable objectives. Select methods, media and materials required the selection, and preparation of methods, media and materials that will help students meet the learning objectives. Utilization of media and material required the proper use of media and materials including decisions on when in the lesson they should be used. Require Learner Participation – We had to come up with activities that required learner participation and the teacher also frequently asked question in class so learners can participate. Evaluate and Revise – Rubrics were created as well as checklists in order to evaluate the lesson presentation and results were used to come up with revisions.
Technology has been part of education for a long time, the blackboard and chalk are technological advances although some people may not think about them that way. Nowadays, there are vast technological advances like the internet, smart phones, tablets, softwares, and the list goes on. If teachers know how to develop and incorporate media resources in their lessons effectively, then these vast advances in technology will, no doubt, be a great help in the teaching learning process. After learning about all the media resources and the guides in incorporating them in instruction, I hope to apply all these knowledge in my future lessons. I intend to use these resources to help students meet learning goals, thereby improving learning. I hope to guide students in the use of media resources, and I hope for them to be more independent and more involved in their learning, after all, I want to help students be independent lifelong learners.
(Ferrington, G. (1994). Kids, imagination, and audio in the classroom. Available at http://wfae.proscenia.net/library/articles/ferrington_classroom.pdf)
(Florida Center for Instructional Technology. (2015). The technology integration matrix. Available at http://fcit.usf.edu/matrix/matrix.php)
Glencoe. (2006). Evaluating web sites – five basic criteria. Available at http://www.glencoe.com/sec/teachingtoday/educationupclose.phtml/10
(Huang, C. (2005). Designing high-quality interactive multimedia learning modules. In Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics, 29, 223-233. Available at https://cset.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/files/documents/publications/Huang-Designing%20hih-quality%20interactive%20multimedia%20learning%20modules.pdf)
Lamb, A. (n.d). Designing & developing resources: Print materials (Chap 7). In Building treehouses for learning: Technology in today’s classrooms, 243 – 272. Available at http://eduscapes.com/treehouses/TJ7print.pdf)
(Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017-1054. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9620.2006.00684.x. Available at http://onlinelearningcurriculumcommittee.pbworks.com/f/mishra.pdf)
(Smaldino, S. E., Russell, J.D., Heinich, R., and Molenda, M. (2004). The ASSURE model (Chap 3). In Instructional technology and media for learning (8th ed), 46-78. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. Available at https://navelmangelep.files.wordpress.com/2013/08/instructional-technology-and-media-for-learning-8th-ed.pdf)
(Smaldino, S. E., Russell, J.D., Heinich, R., and Molenda, M. (2004). Visual principles (Chap 4). In Instructional technology and media for learning (8th ed), 79-105. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. Available at https://navelmangelep.files.wordpress.com/2013/08/instructional-technology-and-media-for-learning-8th-ed.pdf)